Thursday, December 9, 2010

Pelajaran dari Singapura: Quasi-Flag of Convenience


picture is from here


Open register untuk Indonesia mungkin berlawanan dengan UU Pelayaran tahun 2008, tapi perjalanan sejarah negara Singapura dari negara FOC dengan jumlah kecelakaan pelayaran yang tertinggi, hingga menjadi sebuah negara barometer untuk negara open register dan salah satu negara terpenting di dunia maritim patut kita contoh.

dari Transportation Journal (Phang Sock Yong, 1993):

It is also predicted that by the end of the century, as the only quasi-FOC that is truly operationally independent and with an international reputation for efficiency,Singapore will not only be one of the most important shipping registries, but will also be one of the most important maritime centers in the world for shipbuilding and repairing, cargo handling, the supply of seafarers, victuals, and bunkers, and the provision of marine insurance, surveying, arbitration, and financial and management services, congruent with her status a the world's busiest port. As a sovereign state that has signed all the major international maritime conventions on safety, manning, and pollution control, and as a registry that effectively enforces strict regulations on its flag ships with clearly identifiable owners, Singapore, in trying to establish genuine link between flag and ship, has set herself up as one of the most exemplary quasi-FOCs -- which we believe will be the wave of the future.
karena harapan Singapura waktu pertama kali menerapkan open registry adalah menciptakan lapangan kerja untuk rakyatnya, karena efek domino dari keberhasilan sebagai sebuah negara open registry akan mendorong industri maritime untuk juga ikut berkembang.

dari sebuah buku yang menganalisa Singapore sebagai sebuah negara "Quasi-FOC":
John NK Mansell: Flag State Responsibility: Historical Development and Contemporary Issues (P. 110-112):

The establishment and growth of the Singapore open registry - which was one leg of the stool of the port, the fleet, and the local shipbuilding and repair industry, was successful in terms of growth with an annual growth rate of 40% in the first 6 years. By 1972 the Singapore fleet had grown more than one million gross tons, and the five million mark was reached 3 years later (tenold 2003, p. 259). By 1979 Singapore was fifteenth largest flag State with its share of the world fleet having increased from 0.1% in 1969 to 1.9% in 1979. The average size of vessels increased from 1100 GT in 1969 to more than 10000 GT in 1979, of which high a proportion were newly built vessels. In spite of this remarkable growth the Singapore register attracted considerable criticsm as a flag of convenience, both within Singapore and from outside, and the government welcomed initiatives from the Marine Department for stricter and better control. The main reason for this change in policy was the stigma associated with being a flag of convenience, to solve unemployment for Singaporeans, had long been realised through the economic boom of the 1970s.

Two other distinctions highlight the difference between Singapore and other flag of convenience States. Firstly, the income from the register was, relative to Singapore's role as a regional trading centre, proportionally insignificant and, secondly, the very young age profile of ships register differed significantly from the fleets of other FOCs. It was relatively easy for Singapore to tighten age requirements as a large proportion of its ships, and particularly the larger foreign-owned ships, were relatively young. 

The focus upon improving the overall quality of the fleet was upon the two-thirds of vessels that were domestically owned, relatively small, and trading regionally. It was thus easy for the administration to focus upon these vessels without disadvataging the larger vessels on the register. This change in policy from a completely open FOC to an International register has not disadvataged the Singapore register, which has enjoyed continuing growth, and in 2007, as the world fourth largest flag state, comprised 2257 vessels with a total 36.3 million gross tons (Lloyd's Register of Shipping, World Fleet Statistics 2007, p. 12), two-thirds of which is still domestically-owned small vessels trading regionally. 

The register, which defines itself as a "quality register", is activaley promoted as a device to attract business to Singapore and accordingly, companies registering theis ships are required to have an office and a presence in Singapore. Application for registration are vetted by a quality committee and the administration emplys five flag State inspectors to carry out inspections aboard approximately 25% of their 1200 larger internationally-trading vessels per annum. Statutory survey and certification functions are only delegated to IACS members. In summary, after 10 years as completely open register, "the authorities found the benefits of the arrangement less weighty than the odium associated with being seen as a Flag of convenience" (Fairplay 2006, p. 256) and Singapore had used political expediency to cover full gamut of ship registration arragnements over the relatively brief period from 1967-1979

informasi untuk register kapal ke bendera Singapura pun mudah sekali untuk diakses dan begitu detail: 
sedangkan, sulit sekali untuk mencari informasi ini di internet mengenai prosedur, biaya, dokumen, dan hal hal lainnya yang berhubungan dengan pendaftaran kapal berbendera Indonesia.

betul betul BANYAK hal yang harus kita benahi bersama-sama. dengan adanya penerapan azas cabotage, mudah mudahan bisa menjadi salah satu dorongan penting agar Industri maritim bisa menjadi salah satu jalan keluar untuk masalah pengangguran dan sumber pendapatan negara.

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